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Objectives: To systematically compare and pool the prevalence of frailty, including prefrailty, reported in community-dwelling older people overall and according to sex, age, and definition of frailty used.
Measurements: In the studies that were found, frailty and prefrailty were measured according to physical phenotype and broad phenotype, the first defining frailty as a purely physical condition and the second also including psychosocial aspects.
Results: Reported prevalence in the community varies enormously (range 4.0-59.1%). The overall weighted prevalence of frailty was 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.5-10.9; 21 studies; 61,500 participants). The weighted prevalence was 9.9% for physical frailty (95% CI = 9.6-10.2; 15 studies; 44,894 participants) and 13.6% for the broad phenotype of frailty (95% CI = 13.2-14.0; 8 studies; 24,072 participants) (chi-square (χ(2) ) = 217.7, degrees of freedom (df)=1, P
Conclusion: Frailty is common in later life, but different operationalization of frailty status results in widely differing prevalence between studies. Improving the comparability of epidemiological and clinical studies constitutes an important step forward.
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The 860mm S is a rimless bottlenecked centerfire cartridge of German origin, dating back to the interbellum period between World War I and World War II. The bore has the same dimensions as the German 7.9257mm Mauser service cartridge (designated as "S-bore"). The 860mm S can, due to its 83.6 mm (3.291 in) overall length, easily be chambered in standard sized Mauser 98 bolt-action rifles. In such military M98 bolt actions internal magazine boxes feature a magazine length of 84 mm (3.307 in).
After World War I, the Allied forces signed the Treaty of Versailles. This Treaty prohibited the use of standard military weapons and ammunition by Germany. However, civilian hunters didn't want to give up on this round, so a new cartridge was designed by the German arms manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM). Extending the 7.9257mm Mauser cartridge case by 3 mm (2 mm of lengthened body plus 1 mm of lengthened neck) created the 860mm S. The 860mm S bullet diameter is 8.22 mm (.323 in) as found in the 857mm IS.
The new cartridge used the same bullet and therefore only the chamber of the rifle had to be modified (reamed out by 2 mm plus 1 mm of neck extension) to accommodate the slightly longer case. This operation was easily performed on Gewehr 98 and Karabiner 98k rifles. It also meant that owners of rifles so re-chambered could not then be used as an "ad hoc" reserve to the German Army (that was one of the issues of concern at Versailles of reserves of male civilians disguised as rifle club members with their own privately owned rifles - being trained as reinforcements in time of war as the German Army was by that Treaty limited not only to 100,000 men but also to the number of rifles it could possess) as standard military ammunition could not now be safely fired in rifles so converted.
Since this chamber reaming operation is also possible for earlier I-bore rifles, 860mm chambered rifles (without the S or any other further additions) also exist. 860mm rifles sport the earlier tighter 8.07 mm (.318 in) I-bore as found in the 857mm I.
To avoid potentially serious accidents, it is important to distinguish clearly between cartridges loaded for these two different bullet diameters, and only fire them in appropriately chambered/barrelled rifles.
The 860mm S has 4.16 ml (64 grains) H2O cartridge case capacity. The exterior shape of the case was designed to promote reliable case feeding and extraction in bolt-action rifles, under extreme conditions.
According to the official C.I.P. rulings, the 860mm S can handle up to 405.00 MPa (58,740 psi) Pmax piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every rifle has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum pressure to certify for sale to consumers.This means that 860mm S chambered firearms in C.I.P. regulated countries are currently (2016) proof tested at 506.00 MPa (73,389 psi) PE piezo pressure.
The 860mm S offers compared to its parent cartridge, the 857mm IS, about 1 to 2% extra muzzle velocity due to its slightly larger case capacity and higher maximum operating pressure. This results in a flatter trajectory and better performance at longer range.
The popularity of the 860mm S peaked just after World War I and continued throughout the 1930s and 1940s. Today the cartridge is almost obsolete. No or very few rifles are produced for this round. Only two mainstream manufacturers (RWS and Prvi Partizan), along with some other smaller companies like Nolasco and Sologne, continue to produce the cartridge for hunting.
Loaded with short light bullets it can be used on small European game like roe deer and chamois. Loaded with long heavy bullets it can be used on big European game like boar, red deer, moose and brown bear. The 860mm S offers very good penetrating ability due to a fast twist rate that enables it to fire long, heavy bullets with a high sectional density. The 860mm S can be used in countries which ban civil use of former or current military ammunition. The 860mm S's rimmed sister cartridge, the 860mm RS, is also not popular in central Europe for the same reasons as the 860mm S.
After World War II, while German hunters couldn't use centerfire magazine rifles altogether until the 1950s, the 860mm S was very popular in European countries like France and Belgium where until recently the possession of rifles in their original military caliber was tightly regulated. It allowed French licensed gun owners to possess rifles based on the Mauser Gewehr 98 system under the less constraining "hunting rifle" category. This restriction was abolished in France in the mid 2010s and in Belgium a few years earlier.
The also-rare 864mm S cartridge offers a comparable rechambering option for Mauser Gewehr 98 and Karabiner 98k rifles sporting 8 mm S-bores. Due to its larger case capacity the 864mm S chambering offers better ballistic performance than the 860mm S. In such military M98 bolt actions the magazine boxes, however, have to be adapted by a competent gunsmith to function properly with the 864mm S cartridge.
Handloaders can also produce this round, by altering a .30-06 Springfield case and using a standard 8 mm bullet. Prvi Partizan is a major supplier of brass components for European 860mm S Handloaders.
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